The role of viruses in nosocomial pneumonia.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 19;
Authors: Chiche L, Forel JM, Papazian L
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The frequency and impact of viruses among intensive care unit (ICU) nonimmunocompromised patients remains controversial. This review analyzes their place as causal pathogens in ventilator-associated pneumonia, as well as their effects on ICU patients' outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Herpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), are the most frequent viruses detected among nonimmunosuppressed ICU patients, as confirmed by recent prospective studies. Patients infected with these viruses show increased morbidity and, especially for CMV, mortality. An increase of bacterial or fungal superinfections was observed in ICU patients with CMV reactivation. A therapeutic trial of acyclovir (HSV antiviral) in ICU patients was negative. Concerning CMV, pathogenicity was suggested by histologic assessment in ICU patients, and recent murine models with a positive effect of prophylaxis with ganciclovir that prevented postseptic CMV reactivation and secondary lung damage. SUMMARY: Using efficient and rapid virologic diagnostic tests (antigenemia or PCR), the identification of viruses in ICU patients is frequent. Their role in the occurrence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia and their impact on patient outcome depend on the virus. There is sufficient evidence suggesting CMV pathogenicity to conduct an interventional randomized trial using anti-CMV drugs.
PMID: 21252660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]