Safety of Subcutaneous Octreotide in Patients with Sulfonylurea-Induced Hypoglycemia and Congestive Heart Failure (February).
Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Jan 5;
Authors: Vallurupalli S
OBJECTIVE: To report the safe use of subcutaneous octreotide in the treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia in 2 patients with severe congestive heart failure. CASE SUMMARY: Two patients with congestive heart failure with systolic dysfunction presented with severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose level: patient 1, 31 mg/dL; patient 2, 36 mg/dL) secondary to sulfonylurea agents. The mechanism of hypoglycemia was poor oral intake and prolonged half-life of the drugs due to renal failure. Hypoglycemia was refractory to glucose supplementation. Patient 1 received 2 doses of octreotide 50 mug subcutaneously 12 hours apart, with resolution of hypoglycemia (blood glucose level: <33 mg/dL before administration of octreotide, 62 mg/dL after first dose, 121 mg/dL after second dose). Patient 2 received an initial dose of octreotide 25 microg subcutaneously; hypoglycemia persisted after this dose, and the patient was given 2 doses of 50 microg subcutaneously 12 hours apart, leading to resolution of hypoglycemia (blood glucose level: 57 mg/dL before administration of octreotide, 80 mg/dL after first dose, 85 mg/dL after second dose, 146 mg/dL after third dose). Resolution of hypoglycemia with octreotide treatment obviated the need for prolonged intravenous dextrose infusions. No local or systemic adverse effects, especially cardiac adverse events, were noted during the course of treatment. DISCUSSION: Octreotide is considered the antidote for sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia. It may be especially useful in patients with congestive heart failure who may not tolerate intravenous infusions of dextrose. The package insert cautions of the occurrence of cardiac adverse effects such as bradycardia, heart block, and worsening heart failure. Patients with heart failure may theoretically be at a higher risk of these adverse effects due to the concurrent use of atrioventricular blocking agents. However, a review of current literature reveals that the adverse effect profile depends on the route, dose, and formulation of the octreotide used along with the clinical indication. These adverse effects may not be clinically significant with the doses used for treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia and the benefits of the drug may outweigh the risks. CONCLUSIONS: In these cases, octreotide was safely and effectively used in the treatment of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia in patients with congestive heart failure by adhering to dosing guidelines and close monitoring.
PMID: 20118140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]