Pharmacologic management of hypertension in patients with diabetes.
Am Fam Physician. 2008 Dec 1;78(11):1277-82
Authors: Whalen KL, Stewart RD
Hypertension is a common comorbidity in patients with diabetes, and adequate control of blood pressure significantly reduces the risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications. Patients with diabetes should achieve a target blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may slow progression to kidney failure and cardiovascular mortality; these agents are the preferred therapy for managing coexisting diabetes and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blockers can prevent progression of diabetic kidney disease and are a first-line alternative for patients intolerant of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thiazide diuretics provide additional antihypertensive effects when combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. With lower doses of these drugs, the risk of clinically significant metabolic alterations is minimal. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers also have beneficial effects in managing hypertension in patients with diabetes. Beta blockers reduce cardiovascular events and are useful in a multidrug regimen. Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers should be reserved for patients intolerant of preferred agents or those who need additional therapy to achieve target blood pressure. Many patients with diabetes require combination therapy with multiple antihypertensive agents.
PMID: 19069021 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]