J Pers Med. 2022 Oct 17;12(10):1729. doi: 10.3390/jpm12101729.
BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation has been linked to morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Understanding the immunology of COVID-19 is critical for developing effective therapies, diagnostics, and prophylactic strategies to control the disease.
AIM: The aim of this study was to correlate cytokine and chemokine serum levels with COVID-19 disease severity and mortality.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 hospitalized patients from the Tabuk region of Saudi Arabia with confirmed COVID-19 were included in the study. At hospital admission, the IL-1 β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, LT-B4, and CCL-2 serum levels were measured. The cytokine levels in COVID-19 patients were compared to the levels in 30 healthy matched control subjects.
RESULTS: The IL-1 β, IL-2, LTB-4, CCL-2, and IL-8 levels (but not IL-10) were significantly higher in all COVID-19 patients (47 survivors and 13 non-survivors) compared with the levels in the healthy control group. In the non-survivor COVID-19 patients, patients' age, D-dimer, and creatinine kinase were significantly higher, and IL-1 β, IL-2, and IL-8 were significantly lower compared with the levels in the survivors.
CONCLUSION: Mortality rates in COVID-19 patients are associated with increased age and a failure to mount an effective immune response rather than developing a cytokine storm. These results warrant the personalized treatment of COVID-19 patients based on cytokine profiling.