Heart. 2021 Dec 13:heartjnl-2021-320277. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2021-320277. Online ahead of print.
Hyponatraemia is very common in heart failure (HF), especially in decompensated patients. It is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and considered a marker of advanced disease. Recognition of hyponatraemia and its causes may help guide treatment strategy. Historically, therapy has primarily focused on water restriction, decongestion with loop diuretics in case of volume overload (dilutional hyponatraemia) and sodium repletion in case of depletion. In this review, we summarise the potential benefits of established and emerging HF therapies on sodium homeostasis, with a focus on dual vasopressin antagonists, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and hypertonic saline, and propose a potential therapeutic approach for hyponatraemia in HF.