Cureus. 2021 Sep 26;13(9):e18300. doi: 10.7759/cureus.18300. eCollection 2021 Sep.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that affects multiple organs and exhibits significant complications. The major outcomes of prolonged hyperglycemia are nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular events due to the glycation of lipids and proteins. To ensure a healthy lifestyle for diabetic patients, a treatment that delays the complications and simultaneously protects multiple organs is required. Sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors (SGLTi) inhibit the reabsorption of glucose from the kidney and shows promising benefits in renal and heart diseases. The major SGLT receptors are SGLT1 and SGLT2. Various trials are conducted to conclude their efficacy and show nephroprotective and cardioprotective roles independent of diabetic status. The FDA-approved SGLT2 inhibitors are empagliflozin (Jardiance®), canagliflozin (Invokana®), and dapagliflozin (Farxiga®), which are primarily used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They show a reduced rate of hospitalization for heart failure, cardiovascular disease mortality, all-cause mortality, and progression of diabetic kidney disease. It also shows improvement in the glycemic index; therefore, it is protective against the complications of diabetes irrespective of insulin release, thus avoids hypoglycemia. This review summarizes the data from the clinical trials that support the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in reducing the risks of cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with T2DM.