Ann Pharmacother. 2021 Aug 29:10600280211040093. doi: 10.1177/10600280211040093. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of oral anticoagulation in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD-5) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).
DATA SOURCES: A literature search of PubMed (January 2000 to July 1, 2021), the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases (through April 1, 2021) was performed with keywords DOAC (direct-acting oral anticoagulant) OR NOAC or dabigatran OR rivaroxaban OR apixaban OR edoxaban AND end-stage kidney disease combined with atrial fibrillation (AF) or venous thromboembolism (VTE) OR pulmonary embolism OR deep-vein thrombosis.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trials comparing DOACs to an active control for AF or VTE in patients with CKD-5 or ESKD and reporting outcomes of stroke, recurrent thromboembolism, or major bleeding were included.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Nine studies were included. Efficacy data supporting routine use of warfarin or DOACs in CKD-5 or ESKD are limited. Rivaroxaban and apixaban may provide enhanced safety compared to warfarin in patients with AF. Data for VTE are limited to 1 retrospective study.
RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: Because of the paucity of rigorous, prospective studies in CKD-5 or ESKD, OACs should not be broadly used in this population. It is clear that data regarding efficacy of DOACs cannot be reliably and safely extrapolated from the non-ESKD population. Therefore, use of OACs in this population should be individualized.
CONCLUSIONS: If OACs for stroke prevention with AF are deemed necessary, apixaban or rivaroxaban can be considered. DOACs cannot currently be recommended over warfarin in patients with CKD-5 or ESKD and VTE.