Implement Sci Commun. 2021 Jun 1;2(1):59. doi: 10.1186/s43058-021-00161-6.
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most prescribed medications and are often used unnecessarily. PPIs are used for the treatment of heartburn and acid-related disorders. Emerging evidence indicates that PPIs are associated with serious adverse events, such as increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection. In this study, we designed and piloted a PPI de-implementation intervention among hospitalized non-intensive care unit patients.
METHODS: Using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model as the framework, we developed an intervention with input from providers and patients. On a bi-weekly basis, a trainee pharmacist reviewed a random sample of eligible patients' charts to assess if PPI prescriptions were guideline-concordant; a recommendation to de-implement non-guideline-concordant PPI therapy was sent when applicable. We used convergent parallel mixed-methods design to evaluate the feasibility and outcomes of the intervention.
RESULTS: During the study period (September 2019 to August 2020), 2171 patients with an active PPI prescription were admitted. We randomly selected 155 patient charts for review. The mean age of patients was 70.9 ± 9 years, 97.4% were male, and 35% were on PPIs for ≥5 years. The average time (minutes) needed to complete the intervention was as follows: 5 to assess if the PPI was guideline-concordant, 5 to provide patient education, and 7 to follow-up with patients post-discharge. After intervention initiation, the week-to-week mean number of PPI prescriptions decreased by 0.5 (S<0.0001). Barriers and facilitators spanned the 5 elements of the SEIPS model and included factors such as providers' perception that PPIs are low priority medications and patients' willingness to make changes to their PPI therapy if needed, respectively. Ready access to pharmacists was another frequently reported facilitator to guideline-concordant PPI. Providers recommended a PPI de-implementation intervention that is specific and tells them exactly what they need to do with a PPI treatment.
CONCLUSION: In a busy inpatient setting, we developed a feasible way to assess PPI therapy, de-implement non-guideline-concordant PPI use, and provide follow-up to assess any unintended consequences. We documented barriers, facilitators, and provider recommendations that should be considered before implementing such an intervention on a large scale.