Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging. 2020 Jul 23;2(4):e200322. doi: 10.1148/ryct.2020200322. eCollection 2020 Aug.
PURPOSE: To compare prediction of disease outcome, severity, and patient triage in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia with whole lung radiomics, radiologists' interpretation, and clinical variables.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included 315 adult patients (mean age, 56 years [range, 21-100 years], 190 men, 125 women) with COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent noncontrast chest CT. All patients (inpatients, n = 210; outpatients, n = 105) were followed-up for at least 2 weeks to record disease outcome. Clinical variables, such as presenting symptoms, laboratory data, peripheral oxygen saturation, and comorbid diseases, were recorded. Two radiologists assessed each CT in consensus and graded the extent of pulmonary involvement (by percentage of involved lobe) and type of opacities within each lobe. Radiomics were obtained for the entire lung, and multiple logistic regression analyses with areas under the curve (AUCs) as outputs were performed.
RESULTS: Most patients (276/315, 88%) recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia; 36/315 patients (11%) died, and 3/315 patients (1%) remained admitted in the hospital. Radiomics differentiated chest CT in outpatient versus inpatient with an AUC of 0.84 (P < .005), while radiologists' interpretations of disease extent and opacity type had an AUC of 0.69 (P < .0001). Whole lung radiomics were superior to the radiologists' interpretation for predicting patient outcome in terms of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (AUC: 0.75 vs 0.68) and death (AUC: 0.81 vs 0.68) (P < .002). The addition of clinical variables to radiomics improved the AUC to 0.84 for predicting ICU admission.
CONCLUSION: Radiomics from noncontrast chest CT were superior to radiologists' assessment of extent and type of pulmonary opacities in predicting COVID-19 pneumonia outcome, disease severity, and patient triage.© RSNA, 2020.