High-Risk Airway Management in the Emergency Department. Part I: Diseases and Approaches.
J Emerg Med. 2020 May 12;:
Authors: Lentz S, Grossman A, Koyfman A, Long B
BACKGROUND: Successful airway management is critical to the practice of emergency medicine. Emergency physicians must be ready to optimize and prepare for airway management in critically ill patients with a wide range of physiologic challenges. Challenges in airway management commonly encountered in the emergency department are discussed using a pearl and pitfall discussion in this first part of a 2-part series.
OBJECTIVE: This narrative review presents an evidence-based approach to airway and patient management during endotracheal intubation in challenging cases that are commonly encountered in the emergency department.
DISCUSSION: Adverse events during emergent airway management are common, with postintubation cardiac arrest reported in as many as 1 in 25 intubations. Many of these adverse events can be avoided with the proper identification and understanding of the underlying physiology, preparation, and postintubation management. Patients with high-risk features including severe metabolic acidosis; shock and hypotension; obstructive lung disease; pulmonary hypertension, right ventricle failure, and pulmonary embolism; and severe hypoxemia must be managed with airway expertise.
CONCLUSIONS: This narrative review discusses the pearls and pitfalls of commonly encountered physiologic high-risk intubations with a focus on the emergency clinician.
PMID: 32563613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]