Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2020 Mar 30;21(1):31-39. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm.2020.01.24.
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and heart failure (HF) often coexist and must be managed simultaneously. Multidisciplinary collaboration between nephrology and cardiology is critical when treating patients with such complicated physiology. There is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to the evaluation of patients with new left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and diagnostic testing should be adapted to an individual's risk factors. Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for systolic heart failure should be employed in these patients. While limited randomized data exist, observational data and post hoc analyses suggest that GDMT, including renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors, is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes and can be safely initiated at low doses with close monitoring of kidney function in this population. Volume status is typically managed through ultrafiltration, so close communication between cardiology and nephrology is necessary to achieve a patient's optimal dry weight and mitigate intradialytic hypotension. Patient education and engagement regarding sodium and fluid restriction is crucial, and symptom burden should be reassessed following changes to the dialysis regimen.