Plazomicin: A Novel Aminoglycoside for the Treatment of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections.

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Plazomicin: A Novel Aminoglycoside for the Treatment of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections.

Drugs. 2019 Feb 06;:

Authors: Eljaaly K, Alharbi A, Alshehri S, Ortwine JK, Pogue JM

Plazomicin is a novel semisynthetic parenteral aminoglycoside that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including pyelonephritis. Plazomicin displays potent in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including both extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing and carbapenem-resistant isolates. Plazomicin's enhanced Enterobacteriaceae activity is due to its stability to commonly encountered aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes that compromise the activity of traditional aminoglycosides. Plazomicin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is via modification of the ribosomal binding site due to expression of 16S rRNA methyltransferases. Plazomicin does not display improved activity over traditional aminoglycosides against other problematic resistant Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Plazomicin has been assessed in two phase III randomized controlled trials. The EPIC trial compared plazomicin and meropenem for the management of cUTI. In this trial, plazomicin demonstrated superiority in composite cure (81.7% vs 70.1%; difference 11.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-25.7) at the test-of-cure visit, which was driven by enhanced sustained microbiological eradication. The CARE trial compared plazomicin-based and colistin-based combinations in patients with serious infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). In this analysis, plazomicin-based combinations were associated with numerically decreased mortality or serious disease-related complications when compared with colistin-based combinations (23.5% vs 50%, respectively; 90% CI -0.7 to 51.2). Furthermore, plazomicin was also associated with a lower incidence of nephrotoxicity than colistin. However, small sample sizes limit the interpretation of the findings in the CARE trial. Plazomicin is a novel aminoglycoside that offers clinicians an additional option for the management of CRE infections, with superior activity compared with traditional aminoglycosides and potentially improved efficacy and decreased toxicity compared with colistin.

PMID: 30723876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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