Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: A 5-year tertiary care centre experience.
J Clin Apher. 2018 Dec 08;:
Authors: Swart L, Schapkaitz E, Mahlangu JN
INTRODUCTION: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is associated with high mortality if not managed timeously with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). TTP secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is unique to sub-Saharan Africa. The management and outcome of TTP in the era of improved access to therapy has not been described.
METHODS: The present study describes the clinical presentation, treatment, therapeutic endpoints, and outcome of TTP patients at the Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa. The inpatient and outpatient records of 41 consecutive adults with TTP were reviewed between 2012 and 2016. Patients were classified according to aetiology and treatment response.
RESULTS: TTP was the initial presenting feature of HIV infection in 78.0%, and 12.5% were noncompliant with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Most study patients were of black ethnicity (95%) and female gender (78.1%). Treatment included initial TPE (87.8%), plasma infusion (78.1%), antiretroviral therapy (78.3%), corticosteroids (61.0%) intensive care admission (41.5%), renal dialysis (12.2%), and other immunosuppressive agents (4.9%). The median (range) number of TPEs was 10.0 (7.0-15.0). A high rate of refractory disease (63.4%) was reported. Haemoglobin, platelet count, lactate dehydrogenase, red cell distribution width, and creatinine were reliable therapeutic end-points (P < .05). The relapse rate was 9.8% and the mortality rate was 29.3%.
CONCLUSION: The high mortality rate emphasises the importance of early diagnosis, referral, and appropriate management of TTP. Anti-retroviral therapy and adherence monitoring are essential to TTP management associated with HIV. Future studies to identify patients at risk for refractory disease are indicated.
PMID: 30536422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]