Echocardiography in Patients With Infective Endocarditis and the Impact of Diagnostic Delays on Clinical Outcomes.
Am J Cardiol. 2018 May 11;:
Authors: Young WJ, Jeffery DA, Hua A, Primus C, Serafino Wani R, Das S, Wong K, Uppal R, Thomas M, Davies C, Lloyd G, Woldman S, Bhattacharyya S
Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of timing of echocardiography on IE complications. We studied 151 consecutive patients with definite IE. Valve destruction was defined as ≥1 of severe regurgitation, cardiac abscess, or fistula. A definitive echocardiogram was the first echocardiogram (transthoracic (TTE) or Transesophageal (TEE)) which identified pathology consistent with IE and further echocardiography was not required for the diagnosis. TTE and TEE were performed within 4 days of admission in 62% and 15% patients respectively. Definitive echocardiography was achieved with TTE in 60% patients and required additional TEE in 40% patients. Significantly more in-patient embolic events occurred when definitive echocardiography was performed late (≥4 days) compared with early (<4 days) (40% vs 14%, p = 0.043). A significantly greater proportion of patients who underwent late definitive echocardiography (≥4 days) required valve surgery (73% vs 56%, p = 0.04). Time to definitive echocardiography (odds ratio [OR] 1.015, p = 0.011), male gender (OR 1.254, p = 0.005) and age (OR 0.992, p = 0.002) were predictors of severe valve destruction. Late definitive echocardiography (OR 1.166, p=0.035) was a predictor of in-patient embolism. In conclusion, time to definitive echocardiography is an important predictor of valve destruction, embolic events, and subsequent valve surgery. Pathways to reduce delays to echocardiography are required in patients with suspected IE.
PMID: 29958712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]