Hyponatremia in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Depletion Versus Dilution.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 10;65(5):480-492
Authors: Verbrugge FH, Steels P, Grieten L, Nijst P, Tang WH, Mullens W
Hyponatremia frequently poses a therapeutic challenge in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Treating physicians should differentiate between depletional versus dilutional hyponatremia. The former is caused by diuretic agents, which enhance sodium excretion, often with concomitant potassium/magnesium losses. This can be treated with isotonic saline, whereas potassium/magnesium administration may be helpful if plasma concentrations are low. In contrast, as impaired water excretion, rather than sodium deficiency, is the culprit in dilutional hyponatremia, isotonic saline administration may further depress the serum sodium concentration. Because free water excretion is achieved by continuous sodium reabsorption in distal nephron segments with low water permeability, diuretic agents that impair this mechanism (e.g., thiazide-type diuretic agents and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) should be avoided, and proximally acting agents (e.g., acetazolamide and loop diuretic agents) are preferred. Vasopressin antagonists, which promote low water permeability in the collecting ducts and, hence, free water excretion, remain under investigation for dilutional hyponatremia in ADHF.
PMID: 25660927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]