Heart failure with mildly reduced and preserved ejection fraction: A review of disease burden and remaining unmet medical needs within a new treatment landscape

Link to article at PubMed

Heart Fail Rev. 2024 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s10741-024-10385-y. Online ahead of print.


This review provides a comprehensive overview of heart failure with mildly reduced and preserved ejection fraction (HFmrEF/HFpEF), including its definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology; clinical, humanistic, and economic burdens; current pharmacologic landscape in key pharmaceutical markets; and unmet needs to identify key knowledge gaps. We conducted a targeted literature review in electronic databases and prioritized articles with valuable insights into HFmrEF/HFpEF. Overall, 27 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 66 real-world evidence studies, 18 clinical practice guidelines, and 25 additional publications were included. Although recent heart failure (HF) guidelines set left ventricular ejection fraction thresholds to differentiate categories, characterization and diagnosis criteria vary because of the incomplete disease understanding. Recent epidemiological data are limited and diverse. Approximately 50% of symptomatic HF patients have HFpEF, more common than HFmrEF. Prevalence varies with country because of differing definitions and study characteristics, making prevalence interpretation challenging. HFmrEF/HFpEF has considerable mortality risk, and the mortality rate varies with study and patient characteristics and treatments. HFmrEF/HFpEF is associated with considerable morbidity, poor patient outcomes, and common comorbidities. Patients require frequent hospitalizations; therefore, early intervention is crucial to prevent disease burden. Recent RCTs show promising results like risk reduction of composite cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization. Costs data are scarce, but the economic burden is increasing. Despite new drugs, unmet medical needs requiring new treatments remain. Thus, HFmrEF/HFpEF is a growing global healthcare concern. With improving yet incomplete understanding of this disease and its promising treatments, further research is required for better patient outcomes.

PMID:38411769 | DOI:10.1007/s10741-024-10385-y

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