An Improved Definition and SAFE Rule for Predicting Difficult Intravascular Access (DIVA) in Hospitalized Adults

Link to article at PubMed

J Infus Nurs. 2024 Feb 19. doi: 10.1097/NAN.0000000000000535. Online ahead of print.


Patients with difficult intravascular access (DIVA) are common, yet the condition is often ignored or poorly managed, leading to patient dissatisfaction and misuse of health care resources. This study sought to assess all published risk factors associated with DIVA in order to promote prospective identification and improved management of patients with DIVA. A systematic literature review on risk factors associated with DIVA was conducted. Risk factors published in ≥4 eligible studies underwent a multivariate meta-analysis of multiple factors (MVMA-MF) using the Bayesian framework. Of 2535 unique publications identified, 20 studies were eligible for review. In total, 82 unique DIVA risk factors were identified, with the 10 factors found in ≥4 studies undergoing MVMA-MF. Significant predictors of DIVA included vein visibility, vein palpability, history of DIVA, obesity (body mass index [BMI] >30), and history of intravenous (IV) drug abuse, which were combined to create the mnemonic guideline, SAFE: See, Ask (about a history of DIVA or IV drug abuse), Feel, and Evaluate BMI. By recognizing patients with DIVA before the first insertion attempt and treating them from the outset with advanced vein visualization techniques, patients with DIVA could be subject to less frequent painful venipunctures, fewer delays in treatment, and a reduction in other DIVA-associated burdens.

PMID:38377305 | DOI:10.1097/NAN.0000000000000535

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