Clinical management of contrast-induced neurotoxicity: a systematic review

Link to article at PubMed

Acta Neurol Belg. 2024 Feb 8. doi: 10.1007/s13760-024-02474-4. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced neurotoxicity (CIN) is an increasingly recognised complication following endovascular procedures utilising contrast. It remains poorly understood with heterogenous clinical management strategies. The aim of this review was to identify commonly employed treatments for CIN to enhance clinical decision making.

METHODS: A systematic search of Embase (1947-2022) and Medline (1946-2022) was conducted. Articles describing (i) patients with a clinical diagnosis of CIN, (ii) with radiological exclusion of other pathologies, (iii) detailed report of treatments, and (iv) discharge outcomes, were included. Data relating to demographics, procedure, symptoms, treatment and outcomes were extracted.

RESULTS: A total of 73 patients were included, with a median age of 64 years. The most common procedures were cerebral angiography (42.5%) and coronary angiography (42.5%), and the median volume of contrast administered was 150 ml. The most common symptoms were cortical blindness (38.4%) and reduced consciousness (28.8%), and 84.9% of patients experienced complete resolution at the time of discharge. Management included intravenous fluids to dilute contrast in the cerebrovasculature (54.8%), corticosteroids to reduce blood-brain barrier damage (47.9%), antiseizure (16.4%) and sedative (16.4%) medications. Mannitol (13.7%) was also utilised to reduce cerebral oedema. Intensive care admission was required for 19.2% of patients. No statistically significant differences were observed between treatment and discharge outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: The clinical management of CIN should be considered on a patient-by-patient basis, but may consist of aggressive fluid therapy alongside corticosteroids, as well as other supportive therapy as required. Further examination of CIN management is required to define best practice.

PMID:38329641 | DOI:10.1007/s13760-024-02474-4

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