Medicina (Kaunas). 2023 Sep 5;59(9):1600. doi: 10.3390/medicina59091600.
Background and Objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is prevalent in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and is hypothesized to heighten the risk of subsequent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Whether antibiotic treatment of ASB in KTRs is beneficial has not been elucidated. Materials and Methods: We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that examined the merits of managing asymptomatic bacteriuria in KTRs. The primary outcomes were rates of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) and antimicrobial resistance. Results: Five studies encompassing 566 patients were included. No significant difference in symptomatic UTI rates was found between antibiotics and no treatment groups (relative risk (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78-1.41), with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 36%). Antibiotic treatment was found to present an uncertain risk for the development of drug-resistant strains (RR = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.95-2.40, I2 = 0%). In all trials, no significant difference between study arms was demonstrated regarding patient and graft outcomes, such as graft function, graft loss, hospitalization due to UTI, all-cause mortality, or acute rejection. Conclusions: The practice of screening and treating kidney transplant patients for asymptomatic bacteriuria does not curtail the incidence of future symptomatic UTIs, increase antimicrobial resistance, or affect graft outcomes. Whether early treatment of ASB after kidney transplantation (<2 months) is beneficial requires more RCTs.