J Am Heart Assoc. 2023 Sep 19:e029971. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.123.029971. Online ahead of print.
Acute myocardial infarction is an important cause of death worldwide. While it often affects patients of older age, acute myocardial infarction is garnering more attention as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among young patients (<45 years of age). More specifically, there is a focus on recognizing the unique etiologies for myocardial infarction in these younger patients as nonatherosclerotic etiologies occur more frequently in this population. As such, there is a potential for delayed and inaccurate diagnoses and treatments that can carry serious clinical implications. The understanding of acute myocardial infarction manifestations in young patients is evolving, but there remains a significant need for better strategies to rapidly diagnose, risk stratify, and manage such patients. This comprehensive review explores the various etiologies for acute myocardial infarction in young adults and outlines the approach to efficient diagnosis and management for these unique patient phenotypes.