Heart Fail Clin. 2023 Oct;19(4):461-473. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2023.06.001. Epub 2023 Jul 11.
While the prevalence of heart failure, in general, is similar in men and women, women experience a higher rate of HFpEF compared to HFrEF. Cardiovascular risk factors, parity, estrogen levels, cardiac physiology, and altered response to the immune system may be at the root of this difference. Studies have found that in response to increasing age and hypertension, women experience more concentric left ventricle remodeling, more ventricular and arterial stiffness, and less ventricular dilation compared to men, which predisposes women to developing more diastolic dysfunction. A multi-modality imaging approach is recommended to identify patients with HFpEF. Particularly, appreciation of sex-based differences as described in this review is important in optimizing the evaluation and care of women with HFpEF.