Infez Med. 2023 Sep 1;31(3):269-276. doi: 10.53854/liim-3103-1. eCollection 2023.
Mpox (formerly Monkeypox), a neglected tropical disease once confined to Central and West Africa, emerged as a global epidemic outbreak in May, 2022 with 87,529 cases reported as of May, 23, 2023. It predominantly affected men (96.2%) who have sex with men (84-100%), although other transmission routes have been reported, including occupational exposure and vertical transmission. Concomitant HIV infection has been recorded in 21-46.9% and pre-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection has been reported in 11-57% of published cases. The current outbreak clinical presentation differs from endemic cases with prodromal symptoms that could be absent: the number of lesions is generally low, with skin lesions predominantly localised in the ano-genital areas and frequent lesions present in different stages of progression (i.e., asynchronous). Asymptomatic Mpox infection can occur in 1.8-6.5% of at-risk subjects. People living with HIV with severe immunodeficiency (less than 100 CD4+ lymphocytes per microliter) are at risk of more severe clinical manifestations and death. According to a systematic review and meta-analysis, the hospitalisation rate is around 6% and the observed case-fatality rate is less than 0.1%. Tecovirimat is the drug of choice for treating severe cases although there is no evidence of efficacy from randomised controlled trials. Immunization with a live non-replicating vaccine (JYNNEOS) effectively reduces the disease's incidence.