Open Heart. 2023 Sep;10(2):e002331. doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2023-002331.
OBJECTIVES: Inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter may be a surrogate for volume status in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The utility of IVC diameter measurement is under studied. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between IVC diameter, clinical variables and ADHF rehospitalisations.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 200 patients admitted for ADHF from 2018 to 2019 with transthoracic echocardiogram during index hospitalisation. Charts were assessed for ADHF rehospitalisation within 1 year.
RESULTS: The median age was 64, 30.5% were female, and average left ventricular ejection fraction was 41%±20%. IVC diameter correlated to pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure (R=0.347, p<0.001) and body surface area (BSA) (R=0.424 p<0.001). IVC diameter corrected for BSA correlated to PA pressure (R=0.287, p<0.001) and log N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (R=0.247, p≤0.01). Patients rehospitalised within 1 year had significantly greater mean IVC diameter compared with those not rehospitalised (p<0.001) while there was no difference in mean net weight lost during index hospitalisation or mean log NT-proBNP. Patients with IVC diameter greater than 2.07 cm had significantly increased ADHF rehospitalisation (85.6% vs 49.3%, log rank p<0.001) with HR 2.44 (95% CI 1.85 to 3.23, p<0.001). In multivariable Cox regression only IVC diameter (p<0.001), presence of tricuspid regurgitation (p=0.02) and NYHA class III/IV (p<0.001) independently predicted ADHF rehospitalisation within 1 year.
CONCLUSIONS: IVC diameter is predictive of rehospitalisation in patients with ADHF and may identify patients in need of greater monitoring and diuresis.