PLoS One. 2023 Sep 8;18(9):e0291421. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0291421. eCollection 2023.
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease (ID) clinicians can provide essential services for febrile patients in tertiary hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ID consultations (IDC) in managing hospitalized patients with infections in an oriental medical hospital (OMH), which serves as a long-term care facility. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the role of IDCs in managing patients in an OMH.
METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in an OMH in Seoul, Korea, from June 2006 to June 2013.
RESULTS: Among the 465 cases of hospital-acquired fever, 141 (30.3%) were referred for ID. The most common cause of fever was infection in both groups. The peak body temperature of the patient was higher in IDC group (38.8±0.6°C vs. 38.6±0.5°C, p<0.001). Crude mortality at 30 days (14.6% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.043) and infection-attributable mortality (15.3% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.039) were higher in the No-IDC group. Multivariable analysis showed that infection as the focus of fever (adjusted Odd ratio [aOR] 3.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-7.44), underlying cancer (aOR 10.32, 95% CI 4.34-24.51,), and multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (aOR 15.68, 95% CI 2.06-119.08) were associated with increased 30-day mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that in patients with infectious fever, appropriate antibiotic therapy (aOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.76) was the only factor associated with decreased infection-attributable mortality while underlying cancer (aOR 7.80, 95% CI 2.555-23.807) and severe sepsis or septic shock at the onset of fever (aOR 10.15, 95% CI 1.00-102.85) were associated with increased infection-attributable mortality.
CONCLUSION: Infection was the most common cause of fever in patients hospitalized for OMH. Infection as the focus of fever, underlying cancer, and MODS was associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with nosocomial fever. Appropriate antibiotic therapy was associated with decreased infection-attributable mortality in patients with infectious fever.