Dig Dis Sci. 2023 Sep 4. doi: 10.1007/s10620-023-08091-0. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is an epidemic with the strongest risk factor being antibiotic usage. Patients who get CDI frequently require concomitant antibiotics for other indications around the time of their infection.
AIMS: To assess the recurrence of CDI (rCDI) in patients receiving concomitant antibiotics at the same time or shortly thereafter treatment of CDI.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records for patients with their first inpatient CDI episode. Patients were grouped into those who didn't receive concomitant antibiotics (noABx), those receiving antibiotics at the same time as treatment of CDI (ABxDURING), those receiving antibiotics within 30-days of completion of CDI therapy (ABxAFTER) and those who received antibiotics both during and after CDI treatment (ABxDuringAfter). Our primary outcome was recurrence within 14-90 days; other outcomes included ICU stay at the time of diagnosis, 30-day ICU transfer, 30-day colectomy, and readmission.
RESULTS: 457 patients had CDI during admission (mean age: 66.4 years, 51.9% female). 64.1% were exposed to concomitant antibiotics. Recurrence rates were 4.3%, 6.1%, 13.8% and 19.1%, for noABx, ABxDURING, ABxAFTER and ABxDuringAfter, respectively. Patients with ABxDuringAfter had the highest rates of rCDI when compared to noABx [OR 5.67, 95% CI (2.18-14.72)].
CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of utilization of non-CDI antibiotics during or shortly after completing CDI treatment with high rates of recurrence within 90-days. Concomitant antimicrobials alter the opportunity for the microbiota to re-grow and worsens dysbiosis leading to increases in recurrence. Concomitant antimicrobial stewardship remains important in patients being treated for CDI and shortly after treatment.