A Systematic Review of the Emerging Treatment for Hepatorenal Syndrome With a Principal Focus on Terlipressin: A Recent FDA-Approved Drug

Link to article at PubMed

Cureus. 2023 Jul 24;15(7):e42367. doi: 10.7759/cureus.42367. eCollection 2023 Jul.


BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a consequence of liver cirrhosis, is the development of renal failure, which carries a grave prognosis. Reversing acute renal failure with various vasoconstrictor therapies at an appropriate time favors a good prognosis, especially when a liver transplant is not feasible.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare various treatment modalities to deduce an effective way to manage HRS.

METHODS: The authors conducted a literature search in PubMed, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, and Science Direct in October 2022, using regular and MeSH keywords. A total of 1072 articles were identified. The PRISMA guidelines were used, the PICO framework was addressed, and the inclusion criteria were set based on studies from the past 10 years. After quality assessment, 14 studies were included for in-depth analysis in this review. Results: A total of 14 studies were included after quality assessment, including randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and observational cohort studies. Nine hundred and forty-one patients represented this review's experimental and observational studies, apart from the other systematic reviews analyzed. Nine studies discovered that Terlipressin, especially when administered with albumin, was more effective than other conventional treatment modalities, including norepinephrine and midodrine, in terms of improving mortality and reversing the HRS. Four studies suggested that terlipressin exhibited similar effectiveness but found no significant difference. In contrast, one study found that norepinephrine was superior to terlipressin when particularly considering the adverse effects.

CONCLUSION: Terlipressin, one of the most widely used vasoconstrictor agents across the world, seems to be effective in reversing renal failure in HRS. Although adverse effects are seen with this agent, it is still beneficial when compared to other medications. Further studies with larger sample sizes may be warranted.

PMID:37621788 | PMC:PMC10445509 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.42367

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