Time to Benefit of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors Among Patients With Heart Failure

Link to article at PubMed

JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Aug 1;6(8):e2330754. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.30754.


IMPORTANCE: Emerging evidence has consistently demonstrated that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of heart failure (HF) hospitalization and cardiovascular (CV) death among patients with HF. However, it remains unclear how long a patient needs to live to potentially benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors in this population.

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the time to benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors among patients with HF.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This comparative effectiveness study systematically searched PubMed for completed randomized clinical trials about SGLT2 inhibitors and patients with HF published until September 5, 2022; 5 trials with the year of publication ranging from 2019 to 2022 were eventually included. Statistical analysis was performed from April to October 2022.

INTERVENTION: Addition of SGLT2 inhibitors or placebo to guideline-recommended therapy.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the time to first event of CV death or worsening HF, which was broadly comparable across the included trials.

RESULTS: Five trials consisting of 21 947 patients with HF (7837 [35.7%] were female; mean or median age older than 65 years within each trial) were included. SGLT2 inhibitors significantly reduced the risk of worsening HF or CV death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82]). Time to first nominal statistical significance (P < .05) was 26 days (0.86 months), and statistical significance was sustained from day 118 (3.93 months) onwards. A mean of 0.19 (95% CI, 0.12-0.35) months were needed to prevent 1 worsening HF or CV death per 500 patients with SGLT2 inhibitors (absolute risk reduction [ARR], 0.002). Likewise, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.43-1.13) months was estimated to avoid 1 event per 200 patients with SGLT2 inhibitors (ARR, 0.005), 1.74 (95% CI, 1.07-2.61) months to avoid 1 event per 100 patients (ARR, 0.010), and 4.96 (95% CI, 3.18-7.26) months to avoid 1 event per 50 patients (ARR, 0.020). Further analyses indicated a shorter time to benefit for HF hospitalization and among patients with diabetes or HF with reduced ejection fraction.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this comparative effectiveness research study of estimating the time to benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors among patients with HF, a rapid clinical benefit in reducing CV death or worsening HF was found, suggesting that their use may be beneficial for most individuals with HF.

PMID:37615988 | DOI:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.30754

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