Int Urol Nephrol. 2023 Aug 24. doi: 10.1007/s11255-023-03747-2. Online ahead of print.
AIMS: Fluid overload is a common manifestation of cardiovascular and kidney disease and a leading cause of hospitalizations. To identify patients at risk of recurrent severe fluid overload, we evaluated the incidence and risk factors associated with early repeat hospitalization for fluid overload among individuals with cardiovascular disease and risks.
METHODS: Single-center retrospective cohort study of 3423 consecutive adults with an index hospitalization for fluid overload between January 2015 and December 2017 and had cardiovascular risks (older age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, kidney disease, known cardiovascular disease), but excluded if lost to follow-up or eGFR < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2. The outcome was early repeat hospitalization for fluid overload within 30 days of discharge.
RESULTS: The mean age was 73.9 ± 11.6 years and eGFR was 54.1 ± 24.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 at index hospitalization. Early repeat hospitalization for fluid overload occurred in 291 patients (8.5%). After adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, clinical parameters during index hospitalization and medications at discharge, cardiovascular disease (adjusted odds ratio, OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.27-2.17), prior hospitalization for fluid overload within 3 months (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.17-5.44), prior hospitalization for any cause in within 6 months (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.73) and intravenous furosemide use (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.28) were associated with early repeat hospitalization for fluid overload. Higher systolic BP on admission (OR 0.992, 95% 0.986-0.998) and diuretic at discharge (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26-0.98) reduced early hospitalization for fluid overload.
CONCLUSION: Patients at-risk of early repeat hospitalization for fluid overload may be identified using these risk factors for targeted interventions.