Heart Lung. 2023 Aug 22;62:256-263. doi: 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2023.08.006. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Guideline recommendations regarding the preferred preventive measures for postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) are unclear, nor have we found any review articles addressing the combination of amiodarone and beta-blockers for the prevention of POAF.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of combination beta-blockers and amiodarone in the prevention of POAF while also comparing the use of amiodarone and beta-blockers individually.
METHODS: We used Pubmed as the primary resource. POAF incidence was the primary outcome of this study. The secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay (LOS), ICU LOS, treatment-related drug discontinuation (TRDD), and mortality. The random-effects model assessed all pooled outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05.
RESULTS: The amiodarone subgroup of POAF incidence saw a Risk Ratio (RR) of 0.81 [0.63, 1.06], p=0.12, while the combination subgroup resulted in a RR of 0.63 [0.49, 0.80], p <0.001. TRDD for the amiodarone subgroup resulted in a RR of 0.68 [0.25, 1.82], p=0.44, while the combination subgroup saw a RR of 0.84 [0.57, 1.23], p=0.36. For mortality, the amiodarone subgroup resulted in a RR of 0.97 [0.48, 1.98], p=0.93, while the combination subgroup resulted in a RR of 1.04 [0.27, 4.05], p=0.96. Both hospital and ICU LOS saw no significant difference between treatment arms for both the combination subgroup and amiodarone alone. Except for the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) in the combination prophylaxis group, most of the measured outcomes did not meet the optimized information size (OIS) that was estimated.
CONCLUSION: Combination prophylaxis with amiodarone and beta-blockers significantly lowered risks of POAF incidence in comparison to beta-blockers alone while also having comparative mortality and TRDD outcomes.