Med Clin (Barc). 2023 Aug 17:S0025-7753(23)00468-2. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2023.07.018. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: The presence of a respiratory virus in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may have an impact on the bacterial etiology and clinical presentation. In this study we aimed to assess the role of viral infection in the bacterial etiology and outcomes of patients with CAP.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all adults hospitalized with CAP between November 2017 and October 2018. Patients were classified according to the presence of viral infection. An unvaried and a multivaried analysis were performed to identify variables associated with viral infection and clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Overall 590 patients were included. A microorganism was documented in 375 cases (63.5%). A viral infection was demonstrated in 118 (20%). The main pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (35.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.9%) and influenza virus (10.8%). A trend to a higher rate of S. aureus (p=0.06) in patients with viral infection was observed. Patients with viral infection had more often bilateral consolidation patterns (17.8% vs 10.8%, p=0.04), respiratory failure (59.3% vs 42.8%, p=0.001), ICU admission (17.8% vs 7%, p=0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation (9.3% vs 2.8%, p=0.003). Risk factors for respiratory failure were chronic lung disease, age >65 years, positive blood cultures and viral infection. Influenza, virus but no other respiratory viruses, was associated with respiratory failure (OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 2.06-6.73).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reinforces the idea that co-viral infection has an impact in the clinical presentation of CAP causing a more severe clinical picture. This impact seems to be mainly due to influenza virus infection.