Clin Infect Dis. 2023 Aug 18:ciad437. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciad437. Online ahead of print.
We review key concepts in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of individuals with neurosyphilis. We describe the epidemiology of syphilis in the United States, highlight populations that are markedly affected by this infection, and attempt to estimate the burden of neurosyphilis. We describe the cardinal clinical features of early and late (tertiary) neurosyphilis and characterize the clinical significance of asymptomatic neurosyphilis in the antibiotic era. We review the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and the performance characteristics of different CSF assays including treponemal and lipoidal antibodies, white cell count, and protein concentration. Future biomarkers and the role of imaging are briefly considered. We review preferred and alternative treatments for neurosyphilis and evidence for their use, including evidence for the use of enhanced intramuscular benzathine penicillin G to supplement intravenous penicillin.