Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of neuroinflammation in covid-19

Link to article at PubMed

BMJ. 2023 Aug 18;382:e073923. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2022-073923.

ABSTRACT

Although neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are relatively rare, their potential long term morbidity and mortality have a significant impact, given the large numbers of infected patients. Covid-19 is now in the differential diagnosis of a number of common neurological syndromes including encephalopathy, encephalitis, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, stroke, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Physicians should be aware of the pathophysiology underlying these presentations to diagnose and treat patients rapidly and appropriately. Although good evidence has been found for neurovirulence, the neuroinvasive and neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 is limited. The pathophysiology of most complications is immune mediated and vascular, or both. A significant proportion of patients have developed long covid, which can include neuropsychiatric presentations. The mechanisms of long covid remain unclear. The longer term consequences of infection with covid-19 on the brain, particularly in terms of neurodegeneration, will only become apparent with time and long term follow-up.

PMID:37595965 | DOI:10.1136/bmj-2022-073923

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