Cureus. 2023 Jul 14;15(7):e41895. doi: 10.7759/cureus.41895. eCollection 2023 Jul.
Findings on the effects of iron on heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and mortality among patients with iron deficiency (ID) and HF remain conflicting across different studies. We performed a meta-analysis of clinical trials assessing the clinical, hematic and cardiovascular benefits of treating ID in HF patients. We completed a systematic search for studies comparing IV iron to placebo in HF patients with ID. The primary outcomes were rates of HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included change in hematic values, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and ejection fraction. We applied a random-effects model with planned sensitivity analyses of studies with skewed effect sizes. Nine studies were included with a total of 2,261 patients. Analysis revealed that treatment of HF patients with IV iron replacement significantly reduced the odds of HF hospitalization (odds ratio (OR): 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24 to 0.78; p=0.005, I2=67%),) but did not significantly impact all-cause mortality compared to placebo (OR: 0.89; 95%, CI: 0.67 to 1.19; p=0.44, I2: 0%). Analysis showed that IV iron treatment group had significantly higher serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. They also had lower NYHA class -1.90 (95% CI (-2.91 to -0.89); p<0.001, I2:89%) with higher ejection fraction 0.50 (95% CI (0.09 to 0.90) p=0.016, I2:86%). Treatment with IV iron in HF patients with ID is associated with a significant reduction of HF hospitalization but no effects on all-cause mortality. There were also significant increases in hematic values and ejection fraction with a reduction in NYHA class.