Clin Cardiol. 2023 Aug 14. doi: 10.1002/clc.24114. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Dyskalemia is a mortality risk factor in patients with heart failure (HF).
HYPOTHESIS: We described the prevalence of dyskalemia, and clinical outcomes by serum potassium (sK) levels, in Chinese patients hospitalized for HF.
METHODS: In this secondary analysis of the prospective China National Heart Failure Registry, adult patients hospitalized between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2015 who had at least one baseline sK measurement were followed for up to 3 years after discharge. The use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors at baseline and clinical outcomes during follow-up were compared among sK groups.
RESULTS: Among 6950 patients, 5529 (79.6%) had normokalemia (sK >3.5-5.0 mmol/L), 1113 (16.0%) had hypokalemia (sK 0-3.5 mmol/L), and 308 (4.4%) had hyperkalemia (sK >5.0 mmol/L). Baseline characteristics that were most common in patients with hyperkalemia than those with hypo- and normokalemia included older age, HF with reduced ejection fraction, New York Heart Association Class III/IV status, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) differed across sK groups (p = .0001); reported in 64.1%, 63.4%, and 54.5% of patients with hypo-, normo-, and hyperkalemia, respectively. Overall, 26.6%, 28.6%, and 36.0% of patients with hypo-, normo-, and hyperkalemia had rehospitalization for worsened HF, or cardiovascular mortality; p = .0057 for between-group comparison.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hyperkalemia received ACEIs or ARBs for HF treatment at baseline less frequently than those with hypo- or normokalemia, and had worse prognoses. This warrants further investigation into effective hyperkalemia management in HF.