Intern Med J. 2023 Aug 8. doi: 10.1111/imj.16201. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The clinical effects of multivessel interventions in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI), multivessel disease (MVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of intervention in non-culprit lession(s) among this cohort.
METHODS: We consecutively included patients diagnosed with UA/NSTEMI, MVD and CKD between January 2008 and December 2018 at our centre. After successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we compared 48-month overall mortality between those undergoing multivessel PCI (MV-PCI) through a single-procedure or staged-procedure approach and culprit vessel-only PCI (CV-PCI) after 1:1 propensity score matching. We conducted stratified analyses and tests for interaction to investigate the modifying effects of critical covariates. Additionally, we recorded the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) to assess the perioperative safety of the two treatment strategies.
RESULTS: Of the 749 eligible patients, 271 pairs were successfully matched. Those undergoing MV-PCI had reduced all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.67). Subgroup analysis showed that those with advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) could not benefit from MV-PCI (P = 0.250), and the survival advantage also tended to diminish in diabetes (P interaction < 0.01; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.65-1.45). Although the staged-procedure approach (N = 157) failed to bring additional survival benefits compared to single-procedure MV-PCI (N = 290) (P = 0.460), it showed a tendency to decrease the death risk. CIN risks in MV-PCI and CV-PCI groups were not significantly different (risk ratio = 1.60, 95% CI = 0.94-2.73).
CONCLUSION: Among patients with UA/NSTEMI and non-diabetic CKD and an eGFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 , MV-PCI was associated with a reduced risk of long-term death but did not increase the incidence of CIN during the management of MVD compared to CV-PCI. And staged procedures might be a preferable option over single-procedure MV-PCI.