Lancet. 2023 Jul 29;402(10399):412-424. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01048-6. Epub 2023 Jul 14.
Epilepsy is a common medical condition that affects people of all ages, races, social classes, and geographical regions. Diagnosis of epilepsy remains clinical, and ancillary investigations (electroencephalography, imaging, etc) are of aid to determine the type, cause, and prognosis. Antiseizure medications represent the mainstay of epilepsy treatment: they aim to suppress seizures without adverse events, but they do not affect the underlying predisposition to generate seizures. Currently available antiseizure medications are effective in around two-thirds of patients with epilepsy. Neurosurgical resection is an effective strategy to reach seizure control in selected individuals with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Non-pharmacological treatments such as palliative surgery (eg, corpus callosotomy), neuromodulation techniques (eg, vagus nerve stimulation), and dietary interventions represent therapeutic options for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who are not suitable for resective brain surgery.