Hematol Oncol. 2023 Jul 12. doi: 10.1002/hon.3202. Online ahead of print.
Large B-cell lymphoma, the prototype of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, is both the most common lymphoma and accounts for the highest global burden of lymphoma-related deaths. For nearly 4 decades, the goal of treatment has been "cure", first based on CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone), and subsequently with rituximab plus CHOP. However, there is significant clinical, pathologic, and biologic heterogeneity, and not all patients are cured. Understanding and incorporating this biologic heterogeneity into treatment decisions unfortunately is not yet standard of care. Despite this gap, we now have significant advances in frontline, relapsed, and refractory settings. The POLARIX trial shows, for the first time, improved progression-free survival in a prospective randomized phase 3 setting. In the relapsed and refractory settings, there are now many approved agents/regimens, and several bispecific antibodies poised to join the arsenal of options. While chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy is discussed in detail elsewhere, it has quickly become an excellent option in the second-line setting and beyond. Unfortunately, special populations such as older adults continue to have poor outcomes and be underrepresented in trials, although a new generation of trials aim to address this disparity. This brief review will highlight the key issues and advances that offer improved outcomes to an increasing portion of patients.