Management of diabetic ketoacidosis

Link to article at PubMed

Eur J Intern Med. 2023 Jul 5:S0953-6205(23)00231-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2023.07.005. Online ahead of print.


Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute life-threatening emergency in patients with diabetes, it can result in serious morbidity and mortality. Management of DKA requires reversing metabolic derangements, correcting volume depletion, electrolyte imbalances and acidosis while concurrently treating the precipitating illness. There are still controversies regarding certain aspects of DKA management. Different society guidelines have inconsistencies in their recommendations, while some aspects of treatment are not precise enough or have not been thoroughly studied. These controversies may include issues such as optimal fluid resuscitation, rate and type of Insulin therapy, potassium and bicarbonate replacement. Many institutions follow common society guidelines, however, other institutions either develop their own protocols for internal use or do not routinely use any protocols, resulting in inconsistencies in treatment and increased risk of complications and suboptimal outcomes. The objectives of this article are to review knowledge gaps and controversies in the treatment of DKA and provide our perspective on these issues. Moreover, we believe that special patient factors and comorbidities should receive more careful attention and consideration. Factors like pregnancy, renal disease, congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, older age, use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and site of care all impact the treatment approach and require tailored management strategies. However, guidelines often lack sufficient recommendations regarding specific conditions and comorbidities, we aim to address unique circumstances and provide an approach to managing complex patients with specific conditions and co-morbidities. We also sought to examine changes and trends in the treatment of DKA, illuminate on aspects of latest research with a perspective towards future developments and modifications.

PMID:37419787 | DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2023.07.005

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