Heart Fail Clin. 2023 Jul;19(3):307-315. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2023.02.010. Epub 2023 Apr 4.
The causes of mitral regurgitation (MR) can be broadly divided into primary and secondary causes. Although primary MR is caused by degenerative alterations of the mitral valve and the mitral valve apparatus, secondary (functional) MR is multifactorial and related to dilation of the left ventricle and/or mitral annulus commonly resulting in concomitant restriction of the leaflets. Therefore, the treatment of secondary MR (SMR) is complex and includes guideline directed heart failure therapy along with surgical and transcatheter approaches that have shown effectiveness in certain subgroups. This review aims to provide insight into current advances in diagnosis and management of SMR.