Heart Fail Clin. 2023 Jul;19(3):273-283. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2023.02.005. Epub 2023 Apr 4.
Up to 30% of patients with aortic stenosis (AS) present with heart failure (HF) symptoms with either reduced or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. Many of these patients present with a low-flow state, reduced aortic-valve-area (≤1.0 cm2) with low aortic-mean-gradient and aortic-peak-velocity (<40 mm Hg and <4.0 m/s). Thus, determination of true severity is essential for correct management, and multi-imaging evaluation must be performed. Medical treatment of HF is imperative and should be optimized concurrently with the determination of AS-severity. Finally, AS should be treated according to guidelines, keeping in mind that HF and low-flow increase interventions risks.