World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2023 Apr 16;15(4):285-296. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v15.i4.285.
BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and the impact of clinico-demographic factors on hospitalization outcomes in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) remains an area of active research.
AIM: To identify independent predictors of outcomes in patients with NVUGIB, with a particular focus on EGD timing, anticoagulation (AC) status, and demographic features.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis of adult patients with NVUGIB from 2009 to 2014 was performed using validated ICD-9 codes from the National Inpatient Sample database. Patients were stratified by EGD timing relative to hospital admission (≤ 24 h, 24-48 h, 48-72 h, and > 72 h) and then by AC status (yes/no). The primary outcome was all-cause inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes included healthcare usage.
RESULTS: Of the 1082516 patients admitted for NVUGIB, 553186 (51.1%) underwent EGD. The mean time to EGD was 52.8 h. Early (< 24 h from admission) EGD was associated with significantly decreased mortality, less frequent intensive care unit admission, shorter length of hospital stays, lower hospital costs, and an increased likelihood of discharge to home (all with P < 0.001). AC status was not associated with mortality among patients who underwent early EGD (aOR 0.88, P = 0.193). Male sex (OR 1.30) and Hispanic (OR 1.10) or Asian (aOR 1.38) race were also independent predictors of adverse hospitalization outcomes in NVUGIB.
CONCLUSION: Based on this large, nationwide study, early EGD in NVUGIB is associated with lower mortality and decreased healthcare usage, irrespective of AC status. These findings may help guide clinical management and would benefit from prospective validation.
PMID:37138938 | PMC:PMC10150287 | DOI:10.4253/wjge.v15.i4.285