J Clin Med. 2023 Apr 21;12(8):3037. doi: 10.3390/jcm12083037.
BACKGROUND: existing trials on the role of clinical pharmacists in managing chronic disease patients have focused on variety of interventions, including preparing patients for the transition from hospital to home. However, little quantitative evidence is available regarding the effect of multidimensional interventions on supporting disease management for hospitalized patients with heart failure (HF). The present paper reviews the effects of inpatient, discharge and/or after-discharge interventions performed on hospitalized HF patients by multidisciplinary teams, including pharmacists.
METHODS: articles were identified through search engines in three electronic databases following the PRISMA Protocol. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomized intervention studies conducted in the period 1992-2022 were included. In all studies, baseline characteristics of patients as well as study end-points were described in relation to a control group i.e., usual care and a group of subjects that received care from a clinical and/or community pharmacist, as well as other health professionals (Intervention). Study outcomes included all-cause hospital 30-day re-admission or emergency room (ER) visits, all-cause hospitalization within >30 days after discharge, specific-cause hospitalization rates, medication adherence and mortality. The secondary outcomes included adverse events and quality of life. Quality assessment was carried out using RoB 2 Risk of Bias Tool. Publication bias across studies was determined using the funnel plot and Egger's regression test.
RESULTS: a total of 34 protocols were included in the review, while the data from 33 trials were included in further quantitative analyses. The heterogeneity between studies was high. Pharmacist-led interventions, usually performed within interprofessional care teams, reduced the rates of 30-day all-cause hospital re-admission (odds ratio, OR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.62-0.98; p = 0.03) and all-cause hospitalization >30 days after discharge (OR = 0.73; 95% CI 0.63-0.86; p = 0.0001). Subjects hospitalized primarily due to heart failure demonstrated reduced risk of hospital admission within longer periods, i.e., from 60 to 365 days after discharge (OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.51-0.81; p = 0.0002). The rate of all-cause hospitalization was reduced by multidimensional interventions taken by pharmacists: reviews of medicine lists and/or their reconciliation at discharge (OR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.91; p = 0.014), as well as interventions that were based mainly on patient education and counseling (OR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.49-0.88; p = 0.0047). In conclusion, given that HF patients often have complex treatment regimens and multiple comorbid conditions, our findings highlight the need for greater involvement from skilled clinical and community pharmacists in disease management.
PMID:37109373 | DOI:10.3390/jcm12083037