Dysnatremia in COVID-19 Patients-An Analysis of the COLOS Study

Link to article at PubMed

J Clin Med. 2023 Apr 10;12(8):2802. doi: 10.3390/jcm12082802.


BACKGROUND: Sodium imbalance is one of the most common electrolyte disturbances encountered in the medical practice, and it may present with either hyponatremia or hypernatremia. Both sodium abnormalities are related with unfavorable outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: Elucidation of the prevalence of dysnatremia among COVID-19 patients and its impact on 30- and 90-day mortality and need for ICU admission was the goal.

DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted. A total of 2026 adult, SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, admitted to Wroclaw University Hospital between 02.2020 and 06.2021, were included. On admission, patients were divided into groups: normonatremic (N), hyponatremic (L), and hypernatremic (H). Acquired data was processed, and Cox hazards regression and logistic regression were implemented.

KEY RESULTS: Hyponatremia on admission occurred in 17.47% (n = 354) of patients and hypernatremia occurred in 5.03% (n = 102). Dysnatremic patients presented with more comorbidities, used more drugs, and were statistically more often admitted to the ICU. Level of consciousness was the strongest predictor of ICU admission (OR = 1.21, CI: 1.16-1.27, p < 0.001). Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in both the L and H groups (28.52%, p = 0.0001 and 47.95%, p < 0.0001, respectively), in comparison to 17.67% in the N group. Ninety-day mortality showed a similar trend in all study groups: 34.37% in the L group (p = 0.0001), 60.27% (p < 0.0001) in the H group, and 23.32% in the N group. In multivariable analyses, hypo- and hypernatremia were found to be independent predictors of 30- and 90-day mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Both hypo- and hypernatremia are strong predictors of mortality and disease severity in COVID-19 patients. Extraordinary care should be taken when dealing with hypernatremic, COVID-positive patients, as this group exhibits the highest mortality rates.

PMID:37109139 | DOI:10.3390/jcm12082802

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