Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in end-staged kidney disease and kidney transplantation: A narrative review

Link to article at PubMed

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2023 Apr 5:S0939-4753(23)00143-6. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2023.03.023. Online ahead of print.


AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) improve glycemic control and promote weight loss in type 2 diabetes (DM2) and obesity. We identified studies describing the metabolic benefits of GLP-1RA in end-staged kidney disease (ESKD) and kidney transplantation.

DATA SYNTHESIS: We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that investigated the metabolic benefits of GLP-1RA in ESKD and kidney transplantation. We summarized the effect of GLP-1RA on measures of obesity and glycemic control, examined adverse events, and explored adherence with therapy. In small RCTs of patients with DM2 on dialysis, liraglutide for up to 12 weeks lowered HbA1c by 0.8%, reduced time in hyperglycemia by ∼2%, lowered blood glucose by 2 mmol/L and reduced weight by 1-2 kg, compared with placebo. In prospective studies inclusive of ESKD, 12 months of semaglutide reduced HbA1c by 0.8%, and contributed to weight losses of 8 kg. In retrospective cohort studies in DM2 and kidney transplantation, 12 months of GLP-1RA lowered HbA1c by 2%, and fasting glucose by ∼3 mmol/L compared with non-use, and in some reports, weight losses of up to 4 kg were described. Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects were most commonly reported, with hypoglycemia described with GLP-1RA in hemodialysis, particularly in those using insulin.

CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1RA are growing in popularity in those with DM2 and obesity. In small RCTs and observational cohort studies modest glycemic and weight benefits have been described in ESKD and transplantation, but GI side effects may limit adherence. Larger and longer term studies of GLP-1RA remain important.

PMID:37100640 | DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2023.03.023

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