Eur J Intern Med. 2023 Apr 14:S0953-6205(23)00115-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2023.04.002. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: It has been proven that sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) improve the prognosis of patients with heart failure, independent of the presence of diabetes mellitus. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors affect cardiac structural remodeling and cardiac function is still uncertain.
METHODS: We included published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effect of SGLT2is and control therapy in patients with or without heart failure. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3 software.
RESULTS: A total of 15 RCTs with a total of 1343 patients were selected for this meta-analysis, 663 of whom were on SGLT2is treatment and 680 of whom were in the control group. SGLT2is significantly improved heart rate (HR) [MD: -2.74, 95% CI (-4.71, -0.77), P = 0.006], left atrium volume index (LAVi) [MD: -1.99, 95% CI (-3.23,-0.75), P = 0.002], E/e' [MD: -1.47, 95% CI (-1.83,-1.10), P<0.00001], left ventricular mass index (LVMi) [MD: -2.38, 95% CI (-4.35, -0.40), P = 0.02], left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) [MD: -6.50, 95% CI (-11.15,-1.84), P = 0.006], and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [MD: 1.78, 95% CI (0.56,3.01), P = 0.004] in the total population. Subgroup analysis indicated that compared with other SGLT2is, empagliflozin significantly decreased LVEDV, LVESV,LVMi, LAVi, E/e', and increased LVEF (P<0.05). In addition, the cardiac anti-remodeling effects of SGLT2 are particularly significant in patients with heart failure.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that SGLT2is, particularly empagliflozin, significantly reverse cardiac remodeling in patients with heart failure. Empagliflozin may be a potentially promising agent to reverse cardiac remodeling in clinical practice.