Baclofen and the Risk of Encephalopathy: A Real-World, Active-Comparator Cohort Study

Link to article at PubMed

Mayo Clin Proc. 2023 Apr 5:S0025-6196(22)00649-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2022.11.004. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of encephalopathy associated with oral baclofen compared with other muscle relaxants-tizanidine or cyclobenzaprine.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a new-user, active-comparator study of 2 pairwise cohorts using tertiary health system data from Geisinger Health in Pennsylvania (January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2018). Adults (aged ≥18 years) newly treated with baclofen or tizanidine were included in cohort 1. Adults newly treated with baclofen or cyclobenzaprine were included in cohort 2. Propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance the respective cohorts on 45 patient characteristics. Fine-Gray competing risk regression was used to estimate the risk of encephalopathy.

RESULTS: Cohort 1 included 16,192 new baclofen users and 9782 new tizanidine users. The 30-day risk of encephalopathy was higher in patients treated with baclofen vs tizanidine (IPTW incidence rate, 64.7 vs 28.3 per 1000 person-years) with an IPTW subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) of 2.29 (95% CI, 1.43 to 3.67). This risk persisted through 1 year (SHR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07 to 1.64]). Similarly in cohort 2, baclofen vs cyclobenzaprine was associated with a greater risk of encephalopathy at 30 days (SHR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.59 to 3.48]) that persisted through the first year of treatment (SHR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.56 to 2.40]).

CONCLUSION: The risk of encephalopathy was greater with baclofen vs tizanidine or cyclobenzaprine use. The elevated risk was apparent as early as 30 days and persisted through the first year of treatment. Our findings from routine care settings may inform shared treatment decisions between patients and prescribers.

PMID:37028980 | DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2022.11.004

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *