Is low dose of liposomal amphotericin B effective in management of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis? Our conclusions from Al-Mowassat University Hospital, Syria: a prospective observational study

Link to article at PubMed

BMC Infect Dis. 2023 Mar 31;23(1):196. doi: 10.1186/s12879-023-08177-0.


BACKGROUND: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a fatal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although it is a rare disease, upsurge of AIFRS was noticed during the second wave of COVID-19 disease. Early diagnosis and management is the cornerstone for good outcomes. However, management of AIFRS is challengeable especially in developing countries due to limited resources and high prices of antifungal agents. No previous studies have been conducted to evaluate the outcomes of management of AIFRS in Syria. The purpose of this study is to report the results of management of AIFRS with low doses of liposomal amphotericin B in our tertiary hospital in Syria.

METHODS: The outcomes of management of AIFRS cases were followed through a prospective observational study between January 2021 and July 2022. The required medical data were collected for each individual. Three-month mortality rate was studied. SPSS v.26 was used to perform the statistical analysis. Pearson Chi-square test was used to study the associations between different variables and mortality. Survival curves were plotted by the Kaplan-Meier to compare the survival probability. Log Rank (Mantel-Cox) test and Cox regression were conducted to evaluate the factors affecting survival within the follow up period.

RESULTS: Of 70 cases, 36 (51.4%) were males and 34 (48.6%) were females. The mean age of patients was 52.5 years old. The most common underlying risk factor was diabetes mellitus (84.3%). The used dose of liposomal amphotericin B ranged between 2-3 mg/kg per day. The overall 3-month mortality rate was 35.7%. Significant association was found between survival and the following variables: Age, orbital involvement, stage, and comorbidity.

CONCLUSION: The overall mortality rate was close to other studies. However, survival rate was worse than comparable studies in selected cases of AIFRS (older ages, involved orbits, advanced stages, and chronic immunodeficiency). Therefore, low doses of liposomal amphotericin B could be less effective in such cases and high doses are recommended.

PMID:37004006 | PMC:PMC10064616 | DOI:10.1186/s12879-023-08177-0

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