Pharmacy (Basel). 2023 Mar 17;11(2):58. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy11020058.
Heart failure (HF) is a growing major public health and economic concern in the United States and worldwide. Heart failure mortality rates can be as high as 75% despite advances in therapies. HF is expected to be the fastest growing among all cardiovascular diseases, with HF-associated direct medical costs projected to nearly double over the next 10 years. Hospital admissions, re-admission, and medical cost are a huge burden to the healthcare system, and this is estimated to have increased gradually over the past decades despite the available advances in HF treatment and prevention. Many heart failure therapies have shown improvement in terms of mortality, morbidity, and symptomatic management. Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure has proven its ability to reduce morbidity and mortality by 66%. GDMT is recommended to be used among all HF patients when appropriate. In recent years, two new drug classes, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, were approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the management of heart failure. The exact mechanism by which the SGLT-2 inhibitors attenuate the inflammatory process remains unclear. Several mechanisms have been suggested related to the cardiovascular benefit of SGLT-2 inhibitors, including a reduction in inflammation, improvement in natriuresis/diuresis, and promotion of the use of ketones as a secondary energy source. Clinical data showed that SGLT-2 inhibitors have morbidity and mortality benefits within 30 days of initiation. Studies have proven that clinical pharmacists practicing in HF inpatient and outpatient settings resulted in a reduction of HF hospitalization and an increase in the uptake of GDMT by initiating or up-titrating GDMT agents as well as providing patient education.
PMID:36961036 | PMC:PMC10037629 | DOI:10.3390/pharmacy11020058