Racial Disparities in Patients With COVID-19 Infection: A National Inpatient Sample Analysis

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Cureus. 2023 Feb 15;15(2):e35039. doi: 10.7759/cureus.35039. eCollection 2023 Feb.


Introduction Evidence suggests the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic highlighted well-known healthcare disparities. This study investigated racial disparities in patients with COVID-19-related hospitalizations utilizing the US (United States) National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Methodology This was a retrospective study conducted utilizing the NIS 2020 database. The NIS was searched for hospitalization of adult patients with COVID-19 infection as a principal diagnosis using ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision) codes. We divided the NIS into four major racial/ethnic groups: White, Black, Hispanic, and others. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the mean length of stay, mean total hospital charges, development of sepsis, septic shock, use of vasopressors, acute respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney failure, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident, and need for mechanical ventilation. Results Compared to White patients, Hispanic patients had higher adjusted inpatient mortality odds (aOR [adjusted odds ratio]: 1.25, 95% CI 1.19-1.33, p<0.001); however, Black patients had similar adjusted mortality odds (aOR: 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.01, p=0.212). Black patients and Hispanic patients had a higher mean length of stay (8.01 vs 7.13 days, p<0.001 and 7.67 vs 7.13 days, p<0.001, respectively), adjusted odds of cardiac arrest (aOR: 1.53, 95% CI 1.37-1.71, p<0.001 and aOR: 1.73, 95% CI 1.54-1.94, p<0.001), septic shock (aOR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.13-1.33, p<0.001 and aOR: 1.88, 95% CI 1.73-2.04, p<0.001), and vasopressor use (aOR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.53, p<0.001 and aOR: 1.87, 95% CI 1.62 - 2.16, p<0.001). Conclusion Our study showed that Black and Hispanic patients are at higher risk of adverse outcomes compared to White patients admitted with COVID-19 infection.

PMID:36942174 | PMC:PMC10023870 | DOI:10.7759/cureus.35039

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