Dis Mon. 2023 Mar 12:101543. doi: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2023.101543. Online ahead of print.
Colonic diverticular bleeding is the most common cause of lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which can be life-threatening and frequently recurrent. In recent years, the prevalence of diverticulosis has increased in developed countries, with a documented incidence of 50% in patients older than 60 years. Based on the evidence, the use of anticoagulants and/or antiplatelets in the elderly population has resulted in an increased incidence of acute diverticular bleeding. According to the literature, about 50% of patients with diverticular bleeding require a blood transfusion, and 18% - 53% need emergency surgery. Although endoscopic identification of the culprit diverticula and appropriate intervention is a challenge, the newer treatment modality, over the scope clip method (OTSC) has been demonstrated to be an effective endoscopic hemostatic method in severe diverticular bleeding, especially in cases of rebleeding after first-line conventional endoscopic procedures. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiology of colonic diverticulosis and diverticular bleeding, recent evidence in its management, and existing theories on various preventive strategies to control diverticular bleeding. We also discuss the efficacy and treatment outcome of the OTSC technique in controlling diverticular bleeding.
PMID:36918300 | DOI:10.1016/j.disamonth.2023.101543